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Unhealthy Diet as a Risk Factor for Non-Communicable Diseases: A Study on Males over 40 Years of Age in the Colombo District, Sri Lanka

A.P.H.S. Jayarathne


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) can be observed as a leading cause of mortality in Sri Lanka. Unhealthy diet, smoking, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol increase the risk of dying from an NCD. Unhealthy diet can be recognized as one of the main behavioural risk factors that cause NCDs. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of ‘unhealthy diet’ as a risk factor for NCDs. In this study, both primary and secondary data sources have been utilized. In the process of data collection, a questionnaire was administrated and additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants. Target population were men over 40 years of age who suffer from any kind of NCD in the Colombo district.  This study tries to identify the impact of ‘unhealthy diet’ on the morbidity of the men and the extent to which they have controlled after being diagnosed with a NCD. Eventhough there is attention paid on the before and after situation of diagnosing with a NCD, there were no significant changes visible but only slight changes in the consumption patterns of fruits, vegetables and green leaves. On the contrary, there were significant changes in the consumption patterns of salt, sugar and fat. Consumption of salt, sugar and fat has been reduced after being diagnosed with a NCD. Compared to vegetables and green leaves, the consumption of fruits has been reduced mainly due to quality concerns of fruits nowadays. In conclusion it can be said that to minimize the mortality through NCDs; unhealthy diet has to be controlled.

Keywords: Behavioural risk factors, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), unhealthy diet

Early Buddhist Perspective on Women and their Emancipation as Depicted in the Therigāthā

Rev. Ananda.U.


The society as depicted in Buddhism consists of four distinct divisions, namely monks, nuns, lay male devotees and lay female devotees. It is again subdivided into two main groups called clergy and laity. These groups are formed on the level of their dedication in attaining spiritual emancipation. According to early Buddhism, realization of emancipation is the sole goal of the clergy, for which the lay takes a longer time. Since laymen is saddled with diverse domestic and social commitments and responsibilities, it hampers their path to realize emancipation. The cardinal teaching of most Indian religions were focused on the emancipation of individuals. Though Buddhism forms an integral part of the Indian religious tradition, it emphasizes not only individual’s emancipation but also that of the clergy and the laity. Since the process of achieving emancipation is effectuated in a social context, a special responsibility is placed on the role of the individual in society. This role, as it appears in Buddhism, can be viewed from two different angles. When a woman with least social obligation and commitments enters the order, she is expected to concentrate exclusively on attaining her own emancipation. Yet the role of a lay women is of two-fold as she has to discharge her duties to her family and society. The Buddhist ideology concerning the woman is determined on the basis of her role and function in the family. Thus, two major stages of development relating to women can be identified in early Buddhism in contrast to those found in later Buddhism. The first section of this study examines the attitude towards women evident in early Buddhism.  The second section delves into how emancipation of women is depicted in Therigāta. The ultimate objective of the article is to delineate how helpful the teaching of the later Buddhism for women to seek their spiritual emancipation.              

Keywords: Therīgāta, women, emancipation, Buddhist perspective, social significance

Religious Colombo: The Secret City Hiding in Plain Sight

West, C.M.


When we read and hear about Colombo, Sri Lanka, we don’t often read and hear about religion experience.  However, when we step outside on to the streets of Colombo religious experience is obvious and ubiquitous.  This project reviews the scholarly and anecdotal record and compares it to the social and spatial life of the contemporary inner-city.  As well as temples, churches and mosques, the spatiality of religion extends to the street, markets and homes of the city: religious experience is more than worship and sanctioned ritual.  It is felt through all the senses in Colombo.  For example, the cool shade of a bo tree allowed to grow through the hot pavement; the colours and styles of dress; the aromas and flavours of the richly syncretic cuisine; small acts of kindness; and the sounds of observance: voices and instruments connecting the humans, their material realm and the cosmological world.  When religious experience and innovation determine the spatial and the social to such a high degree, why is it that history does not acknowledge their presence?  This blindness to ‘urban religion’ is evident in the literature on Colombo, but also in urban studies more generally.  Situational analysis of the social formation, the urban environment and religious experience represents a way to move past axiomatic views of religion, cities and their relationship. This study also reflects on how a more anthropological understanding of the capital, Colombo, might offer alternative perspectives of the nation and its complex social identity in the post-conflict era.

Keywords: Colombo, religion, social, spatial, urban

Three ‘Endangered Species’ in Theravada Buddhist Studies

Tilakratne A.


This paper proposes to study the current situation of an ancient field of study which dates back almost to the time of the Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. Although the traditional Buddhist studies go to the antiquity, the modern western Buddhist studies started in the middle of the 19th century, a milestone of which is the start of the Pali Text Society in England in 1880s by Rhys Davids who studied Pali language in (then) Ceylon where he was an officer in the Colonial civil service. According to the tradition, Theravada was considered the most authentic Buddhist tradition which traced its origin to the immediate disciples of the Buddha, and Pali language in which the Theravada canon was written is considered the language spoken by the Buddha. The concept of ‘early Buddhism’ was used by the pioneering scholars such as Rhys Davids to refer to the form of Buddhism found in the Pali canon. The traditional belief about Theravada as the most authentic Buddhism and Pali language as the one spoken by the Buddha were questioned by the modern scholars from the beginning. With more recent discoveries of many different versions of the Buddhist scripture, the concept of early Buddhism is no longer applied exclusively to what is contained in the Theravada canon. This paper assesses the arguments for and against the validity and antiquity of these three phenomena; Theravada, Pali and early Buddhism, and shows that the debate is far from being conclusively over.

Keywords: Theravada, Pali, early Buddhism, relativism, skepticism

The Ten Kinds of Equanimity (Upekkhā)

Anne Murphy


Upekkhā has been translated from Pali as “hedonic neutrality or indifference,” the “zero point between joy and sorrow,” and “disinterestedness, neutral feeling, equanimity.” In Buddhist philosophy, equanimity (upekkhā) is most typically recognised as one of the four brahma-vihāras (also mettā, karuṇā, and muditā). In meditation practice, equanimity is also commonly known as the faculty most prominent when experiencing the fourth jhāna. However, in the commentaries of the Atthasālinī and the Visuddhimagga, Bhikkhu Buddhaghosa defines equanimity in ten different ways. These ten kinds of equanimity are: a) six-factored equanimity, b) equanimity as a brahma-vihāra, c) equanimity as an enlightenment factor, d) equanimity of energy, e) equanimity about formations, f) equanimity as a feeling, g) equanimity about insight, h) equanimity as specific neutrality, i) equanimity of jhāna, j) equanimity of purification. This article will discuss each of these ten kinds of equanimity in detail, sourced from the canonical literature, for a multifaceted understanding of the faculty of equanimity. This discussion raises the question why, in both commentaries, Bhikkhu Buddhaghosa placed such an emphasis on equanimity as a faculty to be cultivated. It is proposed here that it is because, according to the Cūḷahatthipadopama Sutta, the faculties of mindfulness and equanimity were most predominant in his mind when the Buddha comprehended the three knowledges and became fully enlightened. Thus, while the mental practice of equanimity, in general, might be considered uninteresting, with some reading of the canonical literature, equanimity may be appreciated as a deeply profound and beautiful state of mind with multiple facets in its application.

 Keywords: Equanimity, Upekkhā, Atthasālinī, Visuddhimagga, Buddhist Psychology

APA format

For complete guidelines for APA format, as well as for specific issues not covered here, see:

American Psychological Association (2001). Publication Manual of the American Psychological   Association (5th ed.). Washington: American Psychological Association.

  1. In-Text Citations
  2. References
  1. In-Text Citations

The APA format uses an author-date method for citing sources in the body of an essay. In other words, when you quote, paraphrase or refer to another text, you must include a reference to the source’s author’s last name and year of publication.

If you do NOT quote a source directly, you need only the author’s last name and the year of publication in your in-text citation. If you DO quote a source directly, you need also to include the page number for the reference.

Short Quotations: If the quotation is less than 40 words long it should be incorporated into your text    and enclosed by double quotation marks [”    “]. If possible, introduce your short quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s name followed by the publication date in parentheses. For example:

As Smith (2008) concludes, “There is significant evidence to suggest that the earth is round” (p. 123).

If you do not name the author in your signal phrase, you must include that information in your parenthetical citation immediately following the quotation. For example:

More recently, scientists have found “significant evidence to suggest that the earth is round” (Smith, 2008, p. 123).

Long Quotations: Quotations that are over 40 words long must be placed in the paper as a block of text set apart from the rest of the paragraph. Block quotations should start on a new line, be indented 5 spaces from the left margin, and be double spaced (like the rest of the essay). Omit quotation marks. Your citation should come at the end of the quotation, as follows:

More importantly, Smith’s (2008) evidence suggesting that the earth is round rather than flat is quite compelling:

abcdabcdabcd abcdabcdabcd abcdabcdabcd abcdabcdabcd abcdabcdabcd bcdabcdab abcbcdabcdabcdabc dabcdabcdbcdabcdabc dabcdabcdabcdabababababababababd bcdabcd  bcdabcdabcd abcd. (p. 123)

Paraphrase and Summary: When you paraphrase or summarize another source, you must acknowledge that source. You should, where possible, include the page reference for the ideas you are paraphrasing/summarizing. For example:

Smith (2008, p. 123) insists the earth is not flat.

The following are some common examples of in-text citations.

A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors; use the word “and” in the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

  • With signal phrase: The study by Jones and Smith (2006) concludes . . .
  • Without signal phrase: Their study concludes the earth is round (Jones & Smith, 2006)

A Work by Three to Five Authors: Name all authors the first time you cite the source; in subsequent citations, use only the first author’s last name and the phrase “et al”.

  • With signal phrase: The study by Jones, Smith, Ali, Rushdie and Murakami (2003) concludes . . .
  • Without signal phrase: Their study concludes the earth is round (Jones, Smith, Ali, Rushdie & Murakami, 2003)
  • In subsequent citations, with signal phrase: The study by Jones et al. (2003) concludes . . .
  • In subsequent citations, without signal phrase:  Their study concludes the earth is round (Jones et al., 2003)

A Work by Six or More Authors: Use the first author’s last name followed by “et al” in the signal phrase or parentheses.

  • With signal phrase: The study by Powell et al (2007) argues  . . .
  • Without signal phrase: Their study concludes the earth is round (Powell et al., 2007)

A Work by an Organization or Agency: Use the organization’s name as if it were an author.

  • With signal phrase: The Canadian International Development Agency (2006) notes that . . .
  • Without signal phrase: Since 1996, Canada’s budget for international development has increased by 10% (Canadian International Development Agency, 2006).

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: Use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to distinguish between entries.

  • Smith’s study (2007a) suggests that . . .

Indirect Sources: When you need to use a source cited in another source, name the original in your signal phrase and include the secondary source in both your in-text citation and your references list.

  • Dorosz argues that . . . (as cited in Smith, 2008, p. 123).


  • References

Your essay must include a separate References page (formatting described above). The rules for basic entries are as follows:

  • entries should be organized alphabetically by the last name of the first author; provide the last name and the initials for each authors
  • entries should be double-spaced with a five-space hanging indent for all lines following the first line of each entry
  • if you use multiple works by the same author, organize entries by the year of publication
  • italicize books and journal titles
  • do NOT italicize or put in quotation marks articles or essays

Book – Single author:

Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of Book. City: Publisher.

            Smith, J.A. (2004). Great Dogs of North America. (4th ed.). Toronto: Dog Press.

Book – Two authors:

Last Name, Initials, & Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of Book. City: Publisher.

Smith, J.A., & Jones, J.C. (2002) Great Dogs of North America. Toronto: Dog Press.

Book – Multiple authors:

Last Name, Initials, Last Name, Initials, Last Name, Initials, & Last Name, Initials. (Date).

Title of Book. City: Publisher.

Smith, J.A., Dorosz, C., Mann, T.T. (2008). The Way it Is. Toronto: ABC Press.

Journal Article – Single author:

Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume, page number range.

            Smith, J.A. (2004). Great Labradors. Dogs for All, 14, 12-50.

Journal Article – Multiple authors:

Last Name, Initials, Last Name, Initials, & Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of article.

               Title of Periodical, volume, page number range.

          Smith, J.A., Jones, J.C., & Campbell, S.D. (2002). Great Labradors. Dogs for All, 12, 9-16.

Chapter in edited book:

Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of Chapter. In Initials Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (pp.

range). City: Publisher.

Smith, J.A. (1999). Dogs of Canada. In P.A. Jones (Ed.), Dogs (pp. 34-56). City: Publisher.


Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title [Abstract]. Periodical Title, volume, page.

         Smith, J.A. (2004). Great Labradors [Abstract]. Dogs for All, 14, 12.

Entire Edited Book:

Last Name, Initials, & Last Name, Initials. (Eds.). (Date). Title of work. City: Publisher.

            Smith, J.A., & Jones, J.C. (Eds.). (2002). Dogs of the World. Toronto: Dog Press.

Reference Book with no author:

Title (ed.). (Date). City: Publisher.

            Dogs of North Canada (2nd ed.). (2001). Toronto: Dog Press.

Review of a Book:

Last name, Initials. (Date). Title of review [Review of the book/article Title]. Journal Title,

                  volume, pages.

            McDonald, K. (2005). Dog Days [Review of Great Dogs of North America]. New York Review of Books, 25, 13-15.

Electronic Sources: References

The following information is based on the APA’s 2007 modifications of rules governing the documentation of electronic sources.

  • Generally, online articles follow the same rules for printed articles. For example, if an online journal has volume and issue numbers, then you should include that information in your entry.
  • Retrieval dates are necessary only for sources that are likely to change (blogs, institutional websites, etc.). Online periodicals are unlikely to change once they are published, and so retrieval dates are not necessary.
  • URLs often change, so you should try to include a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your entry. Many publishers include DOIs on the first page of a document.


Online Periodical (with DOI):

Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Periodical, volume number, page range.

Doi: 000000000/000000.

               Smith, J.A. (2004). Great Labradors. Dogs for All, 14, 12-50. doi:


Online Periodical (no DOI):

               Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Periodical, volume number, from URL.

               Smith, J.A. (2004). Great Labradors. Dogs for All, 14, from

Online Periodical (no DOI; exists as printed and electronic versions)

               Smith, K. (2008). The world is round. [Electronic version]. Earth and Planetary Studies, 66, 123-132.

Article from a Database (i.e., retrieved from library’s online database):

Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.

Smith, J.A. (2005). . (2004). Great Labradors. Dogs for All, 14, 12-50. Retrieved January 17, 2006, from Zoological Record database.

Online Newspaper Article

                 Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of Article. Name of Newspaper. Retrieved URL.

                 Summerji, P. P.  (2008, August 1). New Crime Legislation Criminal. Nowhereville Times. Retrieved from

For more information and / or models of other entries, consult the Style Guide published by OWL Purdue at



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